23 MAR: What is Even Going On?

Five Things I Did This Weekend:

1. I went to a classroom to observe it and obtained a four-leaf clover from one of the students (my weekends start on Friday, since I don’t have any Friday classes).

2. I slept a lot.

3. I watched the five episodes that I missed of my favorite show.

4. I ate a lot of //HOMEMADE// food. It was fantastic.

5. I also went shopping.

I think #1 counts as academic, since it was an observation for my class. I think #2-#5 count as non-academic or just basic weekend stuff. Maybe miscellaneous. Maybe personal? I think all five count as fun! I think I definitely had more stuff under personal or misc, because even though I think everything was fun, I only did one thing that was related to school.

Intertextuality – kind of like allusions

Did we have any intertextuality in our inquiry projects? I honestly do not even know. Probably. Maybe. Could we improve? I think so, since we’re not even sure if we have it in the first place. I’m still not sure what genre means, so… I am honestly still lost.

God, I wish I could say I understand what is going on, but I honestly don’t. I thought the Shia LaBeouf video was funny, but I didn’t really understand its correlation to genre and to writing. I mean, sorry, but I have no idea what’s going on.

Actually, now I’m really worried for our web text contribution, because it seems like everyone else understands what’s going on so much better than me.

11 MAR: Think of the Children!

Globalization Web Text Contribution Notes

I think I am really feeling the idea of a digital magazine. For our project, I think a website or magazine would fit the best. I mean, it’s something FOR children, so books and journals are kind of boring and don’t fit it. Even if it’s something read by adults, it should still fit with the idea of children, so it should have lots of color and pictures and be in formats that are easier to understand across the age groups.

Magazine:

  • Table of contents
  • Ads
  • Not every page has a page number
  • Lots of pictures
  • Words in different sizes

Multimedia Note:

  • Create your own work! Don’t just use Google or Youtube or w/e you find online. Take a picture of something. Make your own graphs. Etc.

Genre is like Calculus: Complicated and Makes You Want to Cry

The idea of genres extending beyond just literature; that much, I definitely understood. Genres are not “forms” either. Genres are not fixed (which is what makes them dynamic, a point Dean later brought up). Genres cannot be classified precisely. I understood all that, but what bothers me is that I don’t exactly know what a genre is either. I mean, I know what it’s not, and I know what genres can be, but what exactly it is…well, that’s not really explained. Although Dean does say, “It is difficult to define to define genres precisely,” and then goes on to talk about the characterizations of genre (rhetorical, historical, etc.), and she does say, “Gunther Kress defines them by their process of development: ‘In any society there are regularly recurring situations in which a number of people interact to perform or carry out certain tasks. Where these are accompanied by language of whatever kind, the regularity of the situation will give rise to regularities in the texts.which.are produced in that situation’,” but I don’t think that really explains it either. Maybe it’s the diction, the word choice—it’s confusing and repetitive, and though she is quoting someone else, I didn’t see her try to define “genres” in her own terms, which made it confusing. Well, she does redefine it, but I think it was an explanation that was lacking, as what Gunther’s.

I truly believe that is the one thing I didn’t understand about this post. Everything else made sense, perhaps because everything else was reworded and explained in simpler terms, such as when explain why genres can be rhetorical: “The element of strategic choice, of being able to consider the situation, purpose, timing, audience, culture, and available options when using a genre is what makes genres rhetorical.” She clearly points out that information, and it’s not a direct quote. So, while I understand what genres are not (or at least, such as with literary texts, that genres are not only that), I don’t really understand where Dean is going when she tries to elaborate on what genre is. She does say, as mentioned earlier, “It is difficult to define genres precisely,” but maybe it was just me, but I didn’t see her define genre well, at least not in a way that was easily understandable by the public. She constantly calls them messy and complex, and I guess maybe that’s why there isn’t a single, discernable definition of what genre is. It is also said, “Paré and Smart separate out the functions Bawarshi mentions and describe genre as having ‘’a distinctive profile of regularities across four dimensions’. These dimensions include (1) the texts themselves, (2) the processes used to compose the texts, (3) the practices readers use to understand the texts, and. (4) ‘the social roles’ the texts and practices establish.” And I think this makes it a little easier to know what is happening throughout the entire text, but I still don’t know what exactly a genre is.

Reading the text multiple times, I did catch where it says, “So they [genres] are texts developed in and responding to recurring situations”, which cleared up some of my confusion (only some), but then I guess the question is…what is a recurring situation? I think that’s the missing part of the puzzle. A genre is not just literary text, but texts that are made in and answer to those recurring situations, so what situations? Any situation? Specific situations? Can something be a genre in one discourse community and not a genre in another because the situation is not relevant to that discourse? Does it have to specifically be text? Can it just be conversation? Does a genre have to be written? Or is genre only specific to a writing discourse community? I think that, if maybe she had tried to think about the definition from all angles, it might’ve been easier to understand, but overall, she did do a good job presenting the information and explaining it in a way that could be more easily understood, and I definitely understood the characteristics and other things like that. I think she might’ve benefited from using simpler language, or using examples outside of just the characteristics of genre, because if a genre has all of these characteristics, than an example should be provided of a genre with all of the characteristics included.

CONTRIBUTION: The Globalized Children of Tomorrow

The globalization of English is a topic that had been researched and researched so many times that bringing something new to the table is a mission that is practically impossible. All angles that come immediately to mind with this topic seem to have already been covered. Research shows that the globalization of English has both positive and negative effects. Economically, it helps expand economic possibilities of all countries and gets them involved with the world trade, but it also limits the local economies as small businesses fail. It brings cultural awareness to different parts of the world, but it also results in severe xenophobia, forced assimilation, and a loss of culture. Students benefit from learning multiple languages, but local languages face endangerment. Information like this is readily available.

However, globalization, and the globalization of English, is not a topic that is often explained to crowds such as elementary school children, and if it is taught, it’s always a watered down version that only focuses on the positive. Problems such as language endangerment and loss of culture are only occasionally known by the children of immigrant parents, but concepts like globalized economics are rarely discussed with children at all, unless to encourage them to learn English to better their economic prospects. By compiling our research, our contribution will be clarifying the ways to teach young children about all sides of the globalization of English, so, in turn, we can create a more understanding path for the ones who will face an even more globalized world than the one we’re currently experiencing.

18 Feb: Who is the Fairest of Them All?

I think that if the Evil Queen had reflected on her choices, she might have seen that it wasn’t Snow’s fault that she was the fairest and not the Evil Queen. Also, y’know, not being Evil might’ve helped too.

I took notes on the Intro to Reflection:

Identify

What are your significant moments?

  • Are we supposed to be writing vignettes?
  • How many are we supposed to write?
  • What feelings am I supposed to be recalling?

Reflect

Analyze those significant moments. Why did it happen that way?

  • How will this get done?

Identify

What did you learn from this overall experience?

  • How will this get done?

 

I think that the hardest part about this is finding a significant writing moment, at least one recently. I am constantly writing, and I don’t know. I can’t think of anything significant but recent.

ATTENTION: Calling for Globalized Breadcrumbs, please.

Call For Papers: Carceral States

This one is about incarceration and it’s specific to indigenous and Asian people, which I think is interesting, even if I haven’t covered much on Asian (and briefly touched on indigenous populations).

“In this special issue of Amerasia Journal, we call for papers and dialogues that examine the convergence of indigenous communities and Asian communities in the Americas as subjects of the carceral state, subject to nation-state attempts to refashion them into proper liberal and economic subjects through assimilation, dispossession, militarization, and relocation.”

Historically, this made me think of the forced assimilation that many Native American experienced at the hands of white settlers and white American citizens. Also, it made me think of the relocation camps during WWII for Japanese citizens. I think this could be my way in because while I didn’t do a lot of research on either group, I do have a lot of U.S. history knowledge to bring mixed in with current research on globalization and culture.

~~~

Call For Papers on “Representation of Minorities: Perspectives and Challenges”

For this call, it asks for papers for a workshop, so it actually had more information on the workshop than on the actual papers.

“While the question of how democracy can represent diversity (or fails to do so) is pressing both in academia and in public discourse, there has been so far little interchange between researchers who study this issue.”

I think this is one of those “there has been a lot of x, but we have yet to…” statements, and it’s definitely one I’ve considered before. I have heard it discussed a lot with my friends and family, so I find it interesting that a lot of research hasn’t gone to it.

“The aim of this Workshop is to discuss new approaches to the study of minority representation, especially turning the attention from who represents minorities to how minority representation takes place.”

I think this is definitely something I can provide research for, not just because of my research but also because of my experience as a minority, as well as the experiences of a lot of people I know (since usually, minorities tend to know a lot of other minorities. Usually.). Most of my research consists of culture and globalization, and a lot of the things I was looking for in the beginning was specifically from those minority immigrants, which I think is also something that can be added to the discussion: not only how are minorities represented, but what about minority immigrants?

~~~

 Call for Chapters: Handbook of Research on Individualism and Identity in the Globalized Digital Age

While looking at this one, I decided to write out some things I found interesting or that coincided with my own opinions on globalization.

“Countries at the receiving end of the effect of globalization point to globalization as culpable in linguistic imperialism and the promotion of cultural conflicts.”

“Globalization fuels the need to reexamine all that have heretofore remained locally moored in terms of education, personhood, wellness, age, and employment.”

I think this quote, found in the introduction, could be my way in. My research is mostly about the effects that globalization has on culture, but culture is connected to identity or personhood. I also briefly touch on employment and education.

“Intercultural communication has come into prominence in the worldwide deportment of globalization.”

I found what this person or organization was looking for here: “The book is intended to illustrate precisely what is needed for individuals to ably participate in the current milieu of globalization. Proposed subjects include adult education; wellness; information management and technology; biomedical ethics; intercultural communication, and globalization.”

I thought the most interesting term of these was “biomedical ethics”, as I had never heard of it. A quick Google Search led me to the idea that it was also known as “medical ethics”, which involves bioethics (study of typically controversial ethical issues brought on by advances in biology and medicine, i.e. abortion) concerning the practice of medicine. It’s not something I’ve covered, but I think it is definitely a very good topic to delve into when concerning globalization.

11 Feb: It’s a Small World

Surprisingly, I have no connection to the UNCC library website, at least not while on the academic side of campus. However, I do have the luck that I’ve used the UNCC library website before for another inquiry project in my education class (on females in STEM, which I think was another student’s inquiry proposal). I used my phone to connect to the library. The struggle is real. I’ve also experienced both TED Talks and NPR, also for my education classes.

The inquiry log number 2 was pretty intense to do because it had us really look at articles and break them down. Inquiry log 3 is much easier because it involves looking at research in a way I’ve gotten used to (see paragraph above), and I’ve found that I actually enjoy posting a lot of questions. I think the way I’m going with is zeroing in on the xenophobia because my focus has really been on the effects on immigrants themselves as opposed to the “natives” of those countries that the immigrants are moving to, especially when those opinions are very negative. I think I could definitely look at the psychology of racism.

I’m still pretty flabbergasted at the article on Islamophobia, and with the recent deaths of the three Muslim students from Chapel Hill, I think it’s very fitting. I don’t even know why I didn’t consider the racism and prejudice directed towards immigrants considering how much I am involved in things like that, but I think it will definitely be good to look into it for my project.

23 Feb: When Will My Reflection Show Who I am Inside?

Let me deviate momentarily. Someone mentioned watching Mockingjay Part 1, and how she reflected on it, and I definitely did that yesterday. My roommates and I watched the first two movies, which one of us and I hadn’t seen since they came out, practically, and we reflected on the nostalgia and the differences between the books and the movies—books we hadn’t read in about four years. Reflecting on books and how I felt then and how I felt nice is really nice.

For the Facilitation Group:

I think it was definitely helpful to get some feedback from some of my classmates. I think we’re all aware that no one is perfect when it comes to writing papers, and I am a fervent believer that there is nothing that cannot be improved upon. So, it was great to hear things that were missing or topics that I should build on for my essay. I think I am definitely planning to add what both of the people who read my essays commented on, and I definitely need to since it was only about two pages and a half and I need three full pages, at least. I think I’m better at narrating and even analyzing, which are the first two steps, than I am at the third step where I have to say what I took away from the experience and how I will use that to build myself into a better writer.

Also, I have to agree with what another classmate said; I don’t think class made writing easier for me, but I do think it opened up doors to other kinds of writing, and I definitely think the writing in this class is much more easier and definitely a lot more enjoyable than traditional essay writing, for example. There is something liberating that comes from inquiry and blog posts, and though inquiry is definitely new and even a little intimidating, practice does make perfect.

WARNING: 9 out of 10 Countries Invaded by English

Chelsea

In her listening log, she talks about the idea of foreign language education. I think a few of the things she talked about are things that I really connect with, because of the fact that, in my opinion, foreign language education and culture (and its loss) and globalization are things mixed in really well. For example, she shows the globalization of English, and while I tried to focus on the internal effects of English within English-speaking countries, she focused on how Algeria, a former French colony, had an education system that now required the learning of English, showing how truly global English is becoming. Something that specifically struck a chord with me was when she asserted that “just as learning Spanish here helps with future jobs and careers, English in other countries can also do that for their citizens.” While I do think that Spanish doesn’t necessarily have to be the foreign language needed to learn, I think that the second half of the statement is definitely true, but only if the people choose to stay in those other non-English speaking countries. Knowing English in Venezuela, for example, is impressive, just like knowing Spanish as an English-native speaker in America or Australia is impressive—but if those people choose to move to English-speaking countries, knowing English is no longer impressive: it’s required. It’s basic knowledge. It’s literacy. I’d also like to ask her a question: if we require students to learn a foreign language, what language should it be? I also did read her second log, and the only thing I have to ask is for her to complicate it by not just focusing on English as a global language, but actually on the effects that English as a global language has on education, both within English-speaking countries and outside them.

 

Blake

Blake’s second log is harder to connect to my topic on culture, but as an education major, I can discuss this topic with a bit more clarity. I think Blake poses very brave questions, questions that I think perhaps half of this country agrees with. It shouldn’t have to be the responsibility of the English-speaking country to accommodate its immigrants, but I definitely do think that it wouldn’t hurt if they did. For example, in Korea, the language is Korean, but they accommodate to tourists and immigrants by putting signs in English and Chinese, for example. However, Korea does not have the high-level of immigrant populations and mixture of cultures that English-speaking countries tend to have, putting places like America into unique situations.

The thing is, yes, America (for example) does have programs such as ESL, but ESL is not always an effective program. A non-English-native student can speak the English language with fluency, which can be enough to have him or her sent out of the ESL classroom, but being able to speak a language well does not mean someone necessarily writes or understands it well—consider the fact that not all native English-speaking adults are necessarily “literate” either. I can read French, but I can’t speak French. I can’t communicate in French or write well in French, but I can most definitely read it and perhaps translate (albeit not well). That does not make me “literate” in French. Speaking French but not being able to read it or write it wouldn’t make me literate either. But overall, ESL is a pretty good program, except for the fact that ESL is only for children, not adults. English is a global language, but that does not mean every country teaches English, and even if there are English courses there, that does not mean that English is required within public schools. I would like Blake to consider how the immigrants can learn a language in their home country when they don’t have access to it. Also, Spanish is only one language, and Hispanics are not the only immigrants. I would like him to explore the subject further and include different cultures, and I definitely want to hear more about the reasons why America and other countries like it shouldn’t accommodate immigrant populations; not because I think he’s wrong, but because I think that is a direction not commonly explored.

 

Chase

Reading Chase’s first log, I think it was definitely a smart move to change things from non-English to little-English, an issue I hadn’t explored much because I had focused more on the internal effects in English-speaking countries. I also hadn’t really given economics much thought until my last log, as opposed to the subjects the other inquiry members were posting, so his posts (in general) were pretty eye-opening. One of his posts that really stuck out to me was when he said, “She explains how these impoverished areas, such as South Africa, are struggling economically because they are tied to their native tongues and don’t learn the English required for a country to compete or even exist in global trade. She states how if such countries were to learn English, they would have the communicative resources and abilities to prosper economically.” I think this would be a great place to expand on, perhaps on researching why some countries haven’t accepted English yet. Could it simply be politics or culture or pride?

His second log brought up some questions: what makes a country little-to-no-English? India only has ten percent, so where does a country begin to have enough English that it is economically rewarded? Is the social stratification in places such as India and other little-to-no English countries really that much different than in places like America, for example? Does English, itself, really help the economy of countries, or is it just an adoption of Western principles? Clever accounting? I thought it was a well-articulated post, but I was left wondering quite a few things. I don’t have much to say for the third log except to ask Chase to expand on the little-to-no English countries (I think I’ve seen India and African countries) unless there is a specific reason for that, as I’d definitely like to learn more about these countries with little-to-no English.

The Melting Pot is Surprisingly Xenophobic

I wanted to focus on xenophobia in this inquiry post, because of my last inquiry log. I tried to change it by not focusing on whether assimilation and globalization is good or bad, but more on why it happens and how it happens, and though my last source did include a good/bad take on globalization, it was one I hadn’t previously taken: one of a person who had thought positively about globalization, and not because of immigration, but because of unification.

I started this inquiry log by looking into Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes Toward Immigrants by Oksana Yakushko. I decided to look into xenophobia, which means the fear (or usually, the hatred) of foreigners, because during my last inquiry post, I realized how deeply ingrained racism was with my topic of assimilation. I had considered it with Native American culture that had been wiped out, but I hadn’t thought about it as it compared to Hispanics and Muslims, for example. I want to see, specifically, the psychology of racism/xenophobia, something this article attempted to discover why it was so prevalent in the United States. The writer refers to the United States as a “xenophobia cultural environment”, and the author attempted to figure out the psychology of xenophobia and its consequences through sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research. The writer didn’t just try to figure out why it exists in the United States, but also how to fix it, agreeing in the sentiment that the xenophobic environment is particularly horrible. I guess the hardest question I can ask is why in particular are xenophobic environments horrible? Is xenophobia really a fear of foreigners or a hatred of them? The writers mentions the shared experiences immigrants face when it becomes to negative attitudes towards them. What sort of attitudes do they face? Can we remedy those negative attitudes? The writer also attributes xenophobia to nationalism, but what makes people become nationalistic? Is it necessarily worse than patriotism? What’s the difference?

Continuing on with the idea of xenophobia, I decided to look to Are Latinos Becoming “White” Folks? And What That Still Says About Race in America by Alisse Waterston. Racism in the United States tend to be fixed into this whole black/white thing, even if blacks and white aren’t the only races (in America). Because American black culture has been deeply ingrained in American culture in general (due to slavery), black people are not often considered immigrants, so they experience the xenophobia that a Hispanic person would. The author explores xenophobia through not just the English-speaking whites towards immigrant Hispanics, but also English-speaking Hispanic who have been in the states for generations towards immigrant Hispanics. It’s an idea that Latinos lose their culture and become progressively more “white”, thus bettering their chances in society as a whole. To me, this showed a really good example of assimilated Hispanics and the social hierarchy displayed in these English-speaking countries where it’s better to leave your culture and fully assimilate than to cling on. While I definitely love this topic, I wanted to know what constitutes as a “white” person? I’ve heard things like this all my life: you act “white”, you speak “white”, but what IS “white”? It also did bring me to an age-old question is how Hispanics identify as white. When I fill out forms, there are always those questions, like “are you Latino or non-Latino?” and then “are you white, black, Native American, Asian, etc?” And I always wondered about that. What makes someone Hispanic? Can being Hispanic be considered a race? Or is it a clash of race, where each Hispanic is a little different than each other? The Hispanic race or group is such a mix of other races and nationalities and groups that how can some Hispanic people even begin to name exactly what kind of “racial groups” they belong to? Should be Hispanic culture or Hispanic cultures?

As I continued with the topic, trying to focus a little less on xenophobia and more on my original questions about the loss of culture, I came to To Be An American by Bill Hing, a peer-reviewed book. I didn’t have time to read the entire thing, but from what I did manage to read, it showed that the main issue was that immigrants were considered “un-American” because of their separate cultures. The writer actually focused more on the economy than culture, but I thought it was relevant because the economical side of globalization plays a lot in the role of losing culture when assimilating since the immigrants or outsiders need to assimilate because of the fact that need to survive in their new English-speaking world. The writer also attempted to tackle the issues that some immigrant sympathizers brought up, like the idea that immigrants contribute more to the country than they take from the country, which gives the writer more credibility since he seemed to try and see all points of the argument.

I finally went to NPR and browsed around of topics including lingua franca, globalization, loss of culture, and xenophobia, topics I had been focused a lot on lately for this inquiry project. I ended up going for a commentary for the program called “All Things Considered”, as it was the only thing I could find that fit my topic. Marc Porter Zasada worked for a global company, and he said that he didn’t understand globalization until he was in France, and he was heckled by a Frenchmen who asserted the idea that France didn’t need his American inventions. Comparing it to Macedonians and other ancient civilizations who had once had great empires, Zasada didn’t really understand the globalization could be considered as something negative. To him, globalization was about creating a global language that brought people together, and he wanted to think that what he was offering was better for everyone. This was relevant because it is in the point-of-view of someone who sympathizes with the globalization of American culture and the English language, someone who viewed that in a very positive light and didn’t see assimilation as a loss of a culture. I’ve focused mostly on people who were entirely against the assimilations of different cultures because of culture or racism, who had thought the negatives of a lingua franca was hurtful, so it was pretty eye-opening to hear someone speak about all the positives that came with a lingua franca and a unified world. But this made me think: What can be considered an “empire”, as America is referred to? How is the United States an empire? Is it its global influence that’s considered part of its empire? Is that positive or negative? How far have other empires gotten in their attempts at globalization? Is a common language necessary for a unified world?